Type: Fungicide 

Health Hazards: Toxic to reproduction (“R2” classified), with many negative findings on fetal development. Connected to liver tumours. Endocrine disruptor according to the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC): Altered steroid hormone levels; effects on receptor binding.

Environmental Hazards: Long-term risk to insectivorous birds; long-term risk to granivorous birds; long-term risk to herbivorous mammals; long-term risk to granivorous mammals. Very toxic to aquatic life, acutely and with long-lasting effects (5-meter buffer required). 

Exposure: Authorised in all 27 member states. 

Residues present in food are very high: The most common Candidate-of-Substitutions-pesticide found in cherries, and commonly found in pears, apples and peaches. 172 Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) above the Level of detection (LOD) of 0.01 mg/kg are established, ranging from 0.05 mg/kg to 40.00 mg/kg per product (top 10 highest MRLs)

Regulatory State of Play: Following five “unjustified” prolongations (each for one year),  approved until 31/08/2024. The last prolongation is fought in EU Court by our French member Générations Futures.

Use: Used on Cereals (wheat, barley, oat, rye), Oilseed rape & Grapes, mostly approved for spraying on fields outside, also for seed dressing of barley.

Alternatives: Resistant varieties, sufficient planting distance, humidity monitoring, sodium & potassium bicarbonates.



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Pesticide Action Network Europe (PAN Europe) gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the European Union, European Commission, DG Environment, LIFE programme. Sole responsibility for this publication lies with the authors and the funders are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.