Type: Herbicides 

Health Hazards: Toxic to reproduction ("R2" classified). Thyroid effects. Chromosome aberrations. Developmental effects. Endocrine disruptor according to the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC). 

Environmental Hazards: A high risk was identified for aquatic organisms (particularly algae). Classified as acute and chronic very toxic to aquatic life. Possibly a persistent (P) bioaccumulative (B) and toxic (T) or PBT substance. 

Exposure: Authorised in 26 member states. 

Residues present in food: 72 Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) above the Level of detection (LOD) of 0.01 mg/kg are established, ranging from 0.002mg/kg to 4.00 mg/kg per product (top 20 highest MRLs)

Regulatory State of Play: Approved until 30/11/2024.

Use: Used against broadleaved weeds and grasses; sprayed outside on fields of wheat and other small grain cereals, vegetables including beans and peas. 

Alternatives: The alternative is mechanical weeding, widely available, e.g., using mechanical harrows and camera-guided mechanical hoes. Heating is another option. This can be done easily before planting and - with some experience - in and between the rows. Crop rotation also helps preventing dominant weeds to accumulate.



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Pesticide Action Network Europe (PAN Europe) gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the European Union, European Commission, DG Environment, LIFE programme. Sole responsibility for this publication lies with the authors and the funders are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.